As society develops, the demand for water is increasing. Living, production, and entertainment activities lead to an increasing amount of wastewater. It is necessaryn to be handled to avoid polluting the environment and affecting human health. To ensure wastewater meets standards before being discharged into the environment, we can treat it using many methods such as chemical, biological or mechanical. Among them biological wastewater treatment methods considered an effective method, costs little money and does not cause secondary pollution to the environment.
Biological wastewater treatment system
So what is biological wastewater treatment?
Wastewater treatment biological method is based on the principle of using microorganisms to treat organic substances and some inorganic substances that cause pollution in wastewater. into products that are not harmful to the environment.
Images of some microorganisms used in wastewater treatment
What are the conditions for wastewater treatment using biological methods?
To treat wastewater using biological methods, wastewater needs to meet the following conditions:
- Wastewater is rich in organic matter and nutrients for the growth of microorganisms. BOD content > ½ COD.
- Does not contain toxins that kill microorganisms or inhibit microbial activities.
- Does not contain heavy metals that inhibit microbial enzymes. Affects the growth process of microorganisms
- Suitable ambient temperature.
Depending on the microorganism used, there are different treatment methods. Specifically, aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic treatment methods.
Division diagram of biological treatment methods
Aerobic biological method
Aerobic biological method is a method that uses aerobic microorganisms to treat pollutants in water under the condition that oxygen is involved.
Commonly used microorganisms are: Actinomyces, Bacillus, Bacterium, Micrococus,…
Aerobic biological method
Anaerobic biological method is a method that uses anaerobic microorganisms to treat pollutants in the absence of oxygen.
Commonly used microorganisms are: Methanococcus, Methanobacterium,…
The anaerobic treatment process is divided into four stages. Polymer hydrolysis, fermentation of amino acids and sugars (Acidification). Anaerobic decomposition (Aceticization) and formation of methane gas (Methanization)
- Polymer hydrolysis: this process takes place right in the pipeline. Under the effect of enzymes secreted by bacteria, polysaccharides, proteins, lipids,… bind to H+. This forms aminoacids, fatty acids, sugars and water.
- Acidification: Bacteria ferment. Converts substances into volatile fatty acids, alcohol, H2S,… causing unpleasant odors
- Aceticization: Acetic bacteria convert fatty acids into acetic. Co2, H2O and create new biomass.
- Methanization: This process is made from two reactions: from CH3COOH and from CO2 ,H
Anoxic biological method
Anoxic biological method is a method that uses microorganisms to treat NH4+ under anoxic conditions to form biomass new and N2.
This method needs to be combined with aerobic or anaerobic methods to achieve high treatment efficiency.
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