Solid waste is a big problem in modern society. Although there are plans to reduce, reuse and recycle solid waste, the issue of treatment is still our country’s top concern.
Currently, waste treatment by incinerator is one of the main treatment options in most developed countries.
The energy generated from the incinerator is used for the plant’s own operations. During the operation of the garbage incinerator, a amount of polluted emissions is generated. large. Incinerator exhaust gas contains furan, dioxin… If not thoroughly treated, it will be dangerous for humans and the environment
Image of trash incinerator
What is garbage disposal by incineration?
Waste treatment by incineration is a heat treatment technology used to reduce the volume of waste that needs to be treated. Incineration can often reduce waste by more than 90%.
This is one of the widely used technologies to treat solid waste before disposal at landfills. Most incinerator treatment plants today incorporate heat recovery as power generation facilities to recover the thermal energy in the waste.
To ensure emissions meet strict standards set by regulatory agencies. Current incineration plants apply a number of process controls as well as exhaust gas cleaning measures as illustrated below:
Illustration of the trash incinerator technological process
Explanation of waste incinerator technology process
Combustion (waste burning)
Waste is continuously fed into the incinerator using an overhead crane. Specially designed high temperature incinerator > 850 o C . With enough air to completely burn waste and prevent the formation of dioxin and CO.
Boiler/ steam turbine
The heat from the combustion process in the incinerator is used to create steam in the boiler. Steam drives a turbine coupled to a generator. Excess heat can also be used for other purposes.
Exhaust gas cleaning
Burning waste leads to the formation of a gas mixture. The gas contains substances such as CO2, SO2, dust, as well as NOx, heavy metal fumes and unburnt hydrocarbons. Therefore, exhaust gases from boilers are often cleaned using advanced pollution control systems to ensure compliance with strict environmental standards.
Operating principle of the incinerator exhaust gas treatment system
When The gas flow leaves the boiler, the temperature is still high. We must lower the temperature of the gas stream before entering the treatment system.
First, the exhaust gas is fed into a wet precipitator to reduce the temperature and process coarse dust. The waste stream is recovered into the sedimentation system for treatment before hybrid circulation.
Then the exhaust gas stream containing NOx will enter the selective catalytic reduction device with NH reducing agent3 and catalyst V2O5. The reduction process is carried out on the V2O5 catalytic surface to form nitrogen and water.
The gas stream after passing through the NOx removal device is directed to the SO2 absorption tower. In the tower, the air flows from the bottom up, the lime milk solution sprays from the top down thanks to the system spray rig. SO2 gas comes into contact with Ca(OH)2 and a reaction occurs. The resulting product is gypsum mud. The gypsum mud follows the waste stream to the bottom of the tower and is periodically removed.
After treating SO2, the exhaust gas will enter the adsorption toweractivated carbon to remove dioxin and mercury vapor. Clean air is led out through the chimney.
Technology diagram of waste incinerator exhaust gas treatment system
Technology diagram of garbage incinerator exhaust gas treatment system
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